Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.0 cm) as opposed to the larger incisions needed in open surgery. Using a small telescope with built-in magnification mechanism and a variety of long, thin surgical instruments placed through approximately 3-5 incisions (each of which is usually no larger than a cm in size), the surgeon is able to perform minimally invasive surgery for a variety of urologic diseases and problems. Laparoscopic surgery includes operations within the abdominal or pelvic cavities.
Minimally invasive surgery has been applied to a multitude of benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) urologic problems. Furthermore, it has been applied to conditions affecting a variety of urologic organs (including kidney, adrenal gland, ureter, bladder, prostate, lymph nodes).