Surgical reconstruction of the bladder can be done either whole bladder or part of the bladder is surgically removed if the urethra or bladder neck is all scarred or has cancer.
Various bladder problems are treated with the help of bladder surgery. Bladder problems are caused due to various factors, and not every problem needs surgery. Depending on the bladder issue and the severity of the problem you are suffering from bladder surgery is done.
Bladder augmentation surgery is also called cystoplasty. It is done for people who have small bladder causing kidney damage.
Urinary diversion is performed when there is bladder damage due to a serious condition such as bladder cancer or damaged urethra.
Transurethral resection surgery is performed when a person has bladder cancer where cancer has reached the bladder wall.
Radical cystectomy or bladder removal - there are two types of cystectomies - radical cystectomy and partial cystectomy. The type of surgery depends on how much bladder needs to be reconstructed.
Neobladder reconstruction- is done when the person has lost their bladder due to bladder cancer, bladder trauma, non-functional bladder, or urinary incontinence.
Bladder suspension surgery is done when the bladder is sagging, it is also known as bladder neck suspension.
Age, health, and lifestyle plays a vital role to decide your eligibility for the surgery. Cost of the surgery and post-surgery needs and expenses are also the factors.
Various complications arise after the surgery which you don't have earlier such as bladder stones and kidney stones.
Rarely, overstretching can cause the pouch to rupture. Another complication is the presence of mucus in urine, diarrhea, trouble in urination. Risks associated with cystectomy are heart attack, excess bleeding, develop an infection, blood clots, and dehydration.
Women who do not want any more children can decide to go for bladder surgery because pregnancy reinvites bladder problems.
The initial evaluation of a patient who is suspected of bladder cancer relies on cystoscopy, assessment of renal function, and imaging of the upper urinary tract, preferably with computed tomography (CT) urography.
The treatment depends on the type of damage blunt injury or penetrating injury.
Contusion- when the bladder wall doesn't tear and only bruised. The doctor will leave a catheter in the bladder so that clots can pass. After it gets cleared the catheter is removed unless if there are any other problems.
Intraperitoneal Rupture- if the tear is on top of the bladder, then urine leakage into the abdomen is a serious issue. The tear is sewn closed with surgery. A catheter is left inside the bladder for about two weeks post-surgery to allow the bladder to rest. The tube may come out either through the urethra or skin below the belly button.
Extraperitoneal Rupture is the tear at the bottom or side of the bladder. The urine will leak into the tissues around the bladder instead of the abdominal cavity. In case of complex injuries, surgery is required.
Penetrating injury is the injury caused to the bladder due to a bullet or any other sharp penetrating object. This is usually fixed with surgery and repair is required to the other organs in the areas.
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