Urology is a surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.
Endourology refers to a sub-specialty area in urology in which small internal endoscopes and instrumentation are used to see into the urinary tract and perform surgery.The ability to approach the urinary tract without requiring surgical incisions has differentiated and continues to differentiate urology from many other surgical specialities.
Endourology has permanently evolved over the last decades under the impulse of technological progress that has allowed the approach of the entire urinary tract and the development of modern, advanced endoscopes. Moreover, throughout the history of surgery, urology has had a leading role in the discovery and implementation of minimally invasive techniques
Endourology is a minimally invasive technique available to treat kidney stones. Stones may be extracted or fragmented using tiny instruments through natural body channels such as the urethra, bladder and ureter. In addition to treatment, our doctors help determine the cause of kidney stone development and help identify methods to prevent further stone formation. Thin, flexible instruments including lasers, graspers, miniature stone retrieval baskets, special scalpels, and cautery, can be advanced through working channels in the scopes in order to perform surgery without creating any incisions at all. The majority of endoscopic procedures can be done on an outpatient basis.
1. Cystoscopy: Cystoscopy is a technique that allows direct visualization of the bladder, and is currently the most frequently performed urological endoscopic procedure, having both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. The endoscopic evaluation of the bladder is frequently accompanied by the concomitant examination of the urethra and, in consequence, can provide a comprehensive evaluation of the lower urinary tract, a procedure known as urethrocystoscopy.
2. Urethroscopy: used to treat strictures or blockages of the urethra.
3. Ureteroscopy: Procedures like URSL(Ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy) and RIRS( Retrograde Intrarenal surgery) are used to treat stones and tumors of the ureter.
4. Nephroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the kidney lining. There are various types of surgical procedures to treat stones, few are done from natural orifice like urethra and few are done with direct and shortest access from back of the body.
The ones done from natural orifice are -- URSL(Ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy) and RIRS( Retrograde Intrarenal surgery). The one done by direct access to kidney by making a small puncture hole in your back is PCNL(Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy).
With advancement of technology and miniaturisation of scopes, newer techniques like Mini PERC, Ultra mini PERC, Super Mini PERC, Supine PCNL etc are been commonly done. The type of procedure to be done on a particular patient depends on lot many factors and your urologist will decide what is best as per those factors.
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