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What is prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer found in males. It develops in the small, walnut-shaped prostate gland located in the pelvis of men. The prostate is regulated by the hormone testosterone that produces seminal fluid. Seminal fluid contains sperms that nourish and transports sperm from the urethra during ejaculation. The urethra also carries urine from the bladder and out through the penis. Enlarged prostate due to cancer growth disrupts the flow of urine from the bladder and patients have difficulty in urinating.

What are the types of Prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is considered an abnormal and malignant growth of cells in the prostate gland that can invade other areas of the body. Most often Prostate adenocarcinoma cancers are seen that grow in the tissue of the prostate glands. Some prostate cancers have aggressive and quick growth and some cancers are slow-growing. Fast-growing cancer may spread to other areas of the body. Many prostate cancers remained confined to the prostate gland and successfully can be removed with minimal treatment. Routine screening is effective to detect many cases of cancers before they spread.

What are the symptoms?

Generally, at the early stage Prostate cancer has no symptoms. As the cancer cells grow, the symptoms start appearing. Talk with your doctor and make sure you receive the correct diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms of Prostate cancer is included:

• Trouble in urinating, the frequent urge of urinating, and blood in urine and semen are the common symptoms as the prostate is located beneath the bladder. When a tumor grows in the prostate, it presses the bladder and urethra that causes painful urination and ejaculation.

• Enlarged prostate cancer often spreads to bone and causes pain in the lower back, pelvic, upper thighs, and bone. You may face pain and discomfort while sitting due to enlarged prostate. Advanced prostate can cause bone fracture or bone pain, especially in the hips, thighs, and back.

• Loss of weight, loss of appetite, and tiredness

• Erectile dysfunction, pain during ejaculation, and blood in semen can create serious sexual disfunction.

What are the causes & Risk Factors?

Prostate cancer develops when specific changes occurred in granular cells and cell starts multiplying rapidly. The accumulating cells form tumor and invade nearby tissue and organs. Changes will be slow at starting, monitoring is recommended.

The following risk factors may increase prostate cancers:

  • As men start aging, the risk of prostate cancer increases. Damaged or abnormal prostate cells start growing out of control after the age of 50 years.
  • It is more often seen in black people. However, its association with specific races and ethnicity is not clear yet.
  • A family history of prostate cancer increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • A healthy diet and lifestyle also play an important role in the normal functioning of the body. Cancer cells grow more aggressively in obese people. Lack of exercise, poor diets, and environmental exposure may increase the risk. Smoking causes a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.

How is it diagnosed?

If you persist in any signs and symptoms, get in touch with a specialized doctor. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are done for screening of prostate cancer.

PSA Blood Test

PSA blood test detects the level of PSA in the blood. It also measures the protein produced by the prostate. If the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is high in the blood, it diagnoses prostate cancer cells. However, this test is appropriate when you are already diagnosed with prostate cancer or have a high risk of cancer.

Digital rectal examination (DRE)

In this test, the doctor inserts a lubricated gloved finger into the rectum and inspects any abnormal shape or hard lumps to the prostate. DRE alone is not sufficient; it should be done with PSA


In a biopsy, the doctor makes a tiny invasion to the prostate and takes a small sample for examination of the tumor. MRI, CT scan, and ultrasound are also done to identifying tumors in the prostate.

How is it treated?

Treatment depends upon various factors like stage and grade of cancer, risk category, age, and health condition of a person.

  • If the cancer is slow-growing, your doctor may keep you at active surveillance to monitor the cancer growth with regular screening.
  • Most aggressive types of cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Hormonal therapy could also be used by giving certain antigens to blocking or reducing the production of hormones to stop or delay the growth of cancer cells.
  • Cryotherapy is used to freezing the prostate gland that destroys cancer cells. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used to heat the target cancer cells and destroy them.

Early-stage prostate cancer is manageable with effective treatment. After surgical treatment, long-term follow-up should be scheduled to regular screening.


Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital

Address: Rao Saheb, Achutrao Patwardhan Marg, Four Bungalows, Andheri West, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400053

Phone: +91-98 88 66 22 00

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