Testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle start growing abnormally. Testes are male sexual glands that produce sperms and testosterone hormones in men. The testicles are small egg-shaped glands located inside a pouch of skin called the scrotum, underneath the penis. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men age between 15 to 44 years. The malignant cells develop in the tissues of a testicle and can affect most of the testicles, but it very rare and curable.
Testicular cancer starts in the germ cells of testicles that produce sperms.
Symptoms of testicular cancer may include:
Testicular cancer occurs when germ cells in a testicle start growing and multiplying abnormally. Some genetic factors may also increase the risk. Risk factors for developing cancer include:
To diagnose testicular cancer, a doctor will recommend:
The stages of cancer determine the treatment option.
The main treatment option for testicular cancer is:
Most often orchiectomy is done for removing one or both the testicle and the associated lymph nodes. After surgery, the patient is kept under regular surveillance to make sure the cancer is not returning.
Radiation therapy uses a high-energy ray to kill cancer cells on the testis or in nearby lymph nodes. It might be used after surgery to prevent tumors from coming back. In treating seminoma-cell cancers, an internal radiation technique is used where radioactive seeds are placed into the affected area.
Chemotherapy uses drugs that travel through the body in the bloodstream to kill cancer cells. If cancer cells grow beyond the testicles, it is a recommended treatment. It also lowers the risk of cancer returning after surgery.
It will take up to 2 months to fully recover from surgery. Follow-up care is necessary. Self-testicular examination keeps you informed about the early detection of cancer.
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