Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are the most common urinary tract conditions in paediatric urology. Any degree of ureteropelvic junction obstruction is coexisted with VUR reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux is the most common abnormal condition that existed in a child's lower urinary tract. A ureter is a tube that drains urine into the bladder. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children occurs when a blockage occurs in ureters because of narrowing or obstruction near the kidney. It slows or stops the normal flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. UPJ obstruction interferes with the function of the kidney which can damage the kidney.
The blockage generally forms in the fetus at the renal pelvis during kidney formation. It is detected in ultrasound testing before birth.
With vesicoureteral reflux, urine flows backward from the bladder up to the tubes (ureters) that connect kidneys to your bladder. Bacteria and other infections of the bladder can enter the kidney and cause kidney damage. Vesicoureteral reflux disorder can lead to the risk of urinary tract infections, if not treated early. It is most often seen in infants and children.
Signs and Symptoms included:
When the connection between the ureter and the renal pelvis does not develop normally, it affects kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
There are certain risk factors for vesicoureteral reflux including:
An ultrasound during pregnancy reveals kidney problems and VUR before birth. Diagnosis tests after birth including:
The paediatric specialists take care of the treatment plan after analysing the level of risk to the kidneys.
Very rarely, significant reflux could coexist with significant ureteropelvic junction obstruction when the ureter is severely dilated and tortuous. Repairing of both the upper and lower tract problems is done with surgical treatment. However, sometimes after the treatment of UJO, the reflux is corrected spontaneously.
Early diagnosis and treatment help to prevent kidney and urinary tract diseases in the future.
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